Immunity Boosing Foods and COVID-19

I had promised to share some of the chapters from my book on COVID-19. I am sharing one chapter today.

The links to the eBook COVID-19 are in the following links given below.

Global https://www.amazon.com/dp/B08FRSNS73

Indian https://www.amazon.in/dp/B08FRSNS73    

Since immunity boosting foods has been mentioned so often in connection with COVID-19, I thought it would be useful to bring in a section on this topic. Based on my experience, I thought it would be a simple process of opening up online literature and just copy and paste the relevant information. It wasn’t easy as I imagined.

A cardiologist based from the US has looked at immunity boosting foods in a critical manner. A number of questions that he had raised, forced me to go deeper into this topic. Here are some of his questions.

Can you boost your immune system to fight COVID-19? This is the question on everyone’s mind as we face a worldwide crisis. There are online claims that we can “boost” our immune system with just about everything from Vitamin C or Vitamin D to a number of immunity-boosting foods. But how do we know which of these recommendations, if any, really work? He indicated that the immune system is an intricate and delicate system with many different components. Helping one section might impair another and may not contribute to fighting viruses. How do we know if something that helps with another virus will help with this new corona virus?

To understand immunity boosting foods, I have classified them into four broad categories. The first category is vitamins and minerals given as supplements or through foods rich in these. The second category is the regular fruits and vegetables used in day to day cooking and diet, considered to have immune promoting properties. I am handling both the first and second categories together, relating the immunity boosting foods with the foods that are rich in these vitamins and minerals.

The third category is the variety of condiments and spices used, and claimed to have immunity boosting properties. Finally, in the fourth category are traditional herbs and other substances considered to be immunity boosting.  While the first category is the most scientifically studied, there is not enough scientific studies to conclude on the immunity boosting properties of the other three categories.

Vitamins, Minerals and Supplements

Taking vitamins, minerals, or other supplements could help protect from COVID-19. Here’s what we do know about certain supplements that reportedly have immune-boosting properties. Consuming foods rich in these would also be helpful.

Vitamin C has been used to help prevent the common cold. It may improve the function of certain white blood cells that fight infection. Vitamin C is known to strengthen the body’s T cells and phagocytes, which are the two main components of the immune system. There’s no harm in taking up to 2,000 mg per day (the upper limit set by the National Academy of Medicine).

Taking a Vitamin D supplement seemed to have a mild protective effect against respiratory tract infections in most people, especially those who were very deficient in Vitamin D. It is probably wise to take a Vitamin D supplement, especially if there is increased risk for COVID-19. Additionally, try to get some sunlight for about fifteen minutes daily if possible.

Vitamin E the next is a great source of strength to fight infections. Nuts such as almonds and walnuts as well as certain seeds like sunflower seeds, flax seeds, pumpkin seeds and melon seeds are excellent sources of protein and vitamin E with anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin A, B6, C, D and E can help increase the strength of the immune system. Vitamin C is the biggest booster of all.

Zinc is a mineral involved in the white blood cell response to infection. It has been identified that supplementing with zinc reduced the duration of the common cold. It is not sure whether it can have a similar effect on COVID-19. Taking supplementary zinc (< 40 mg) may be a good strategy for older people and others at increased risk. Selenium is another important trace mineral that is useful for increasing immunity. This naturally leads me to the second group.

Fruits and vegetables

Citrus fruits are an excellent source of vitamin C, a nutrient that strengthens the immune system. Some of the popular citrus fruits are: orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit or pomelo, sweet lime or mosambi (citrus limetta), mandarin, tangerine, galgal (citron) or naarthenkai in Tamil. Other fruits include mangoes, strawberries, blue berries and apples.

Broccoli is packed with vitamins A, C and E. Tomatoes have valuable nutrients. Vegetables such as the red or the green bell peppers contain large amounts of vitamin C. Bell peppers are also a great source of beta carotene. Gooseberry or amla is considered another good immunity boosting food. Cashews, pumpkin seeds, chickpeas contribute to providing zinc. Consuming a wide variety of seasonal vegetables would contribute to boosting immunity.

Leafy vegetables such as spinach or palak or pasalai (Tamil), and kale or parattai keerai (Tamil) are a great source of daily vitamin intake. Spinach is rich in high amounts of carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin K, folic acid, iron, and calcium. Kale is rich in Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Vitamin C, Vitamin B6, Manganese, Calcium, Copper, Potassium, Magnesium, vitamin B1, B2, B3, iron and phosphorus. 

Condiments and spices

Turmeric a spice commonly used in Indian and Asian cuisine belongs to the third category. It contains a bright-yellow compound known as curcumin, which emerging research suggests might enhance immune function, although not sure that it helps fight viral infections.

Garlic, another popular and widely used pungent herb with a characteristic aroma, is widely believed to have antibacterial and antiviral effects, including helping to fight the common cold. In one study, people who took a garlic supplement had fewer colds and recovered more quickly from colds than people who didn’t take garlic.

Ginger is another common food stuff used that is believed to have immunity building properties. Many test-tube and animal studies suggest that ginger can enhance immune response. Specific compounds in ginger, such as gingerols, shaogals and zingerone, have been found to inhibit viral replication and prevent viruses from entering host cells.

Traditional herbs and other food stuffs

It is the fourth category that is apparently not well studied scientifically. However anecdotal experiences and some of the studies carried out point to their usefulness in boosting immunity. I have listed two scientific studies from this category in the bibliography section to add weight to their possible role in increasing immunity.

The first one is drum stick leaves. Moringa have seven times more vitamin C than oranges and fifteen times more potassium than bananas.  It is also packed with antioxidants, substances that can protect cells from damage and may boost your immune system. They can be consumed as a leafy vegetable, or boiled and juice extracted, or shade dried and powdered and then consumed as a powder or extracted as juice. Personally, I have witnessed HIV/AIDS patients using this as an immunity boosting food, just before the arrival of Anti-Retroviral Treatment for the disease. Their CD4 count as a marker of immunity remained high.

Based on the above, I can add other similar herbal products. First is aloe vera. The next is Rosella, used as a juice extract.  Black pepper is known for its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties through its active compound, piperine. Star anise, black cumin (jeera), tulsi leaves or royal basil are used in traditional home remedies. Fenugreek seeds are packed with antiviral properties and have the ability to kill viruses that cause sniffles and sore throats. Onion is a rich source of organo sulfur compounds like quercetin and allicin which are associated with inhibition of viral infection.

Egg yolks and mushrooms are a good source of Vitamin D with eggs additionally having selenium. Milk contains nutrients like probiotics, vitamin D and immunoglobulins that boost the immune system and in turn reduce the risk of allergies. Honey, especially ‘Manuka’ honey, has strong antiviral properties against the varicella-zoster virus, the respiratory syncytial virus, and also has anti-influenza activity. It is also known to soothe a sore throat, suppress cough and can boost the cold-fighting action of black peppercorn. While I do not know the basis, drinking hot water is supposed to improve immunity.

Personal experience

I just want to add a few from my experience. My mother always gave me a special blend of hot drink prepared with dried ginger and coriander seeds, whenever I had cough. It was effective.

Earlier, my grandmother used to make a preparation using ginger fresh or dried, long pepper or tippili (Tamil language), betel leaves and the bark of neem tree. I have forgotten the other ingredients that went into it. It was not the tastiest concoction. We grandchildren, just closed our eyes and gulped it in one go once a month. Today, I presume that the action of these is by boosting the immunity. I can tell of other herbal practices to overcome childhood constipation or even abdominal colic among children. I would however, like to present my own experience with a chronic cough.

In my sixty fifth year, while visiting the US, suddenly I had a bout of cough. I knew it was not infection. There was a tendency to blame the allergens of the season. I put up with it for the two months that I was there, without visiting a doctor. When I returned to India, I still had the cough. I went to my physician. Walking along with me he could hear a loud wheeze. Without even putting a stethoscope on my chest, he said that I had asthma. I knew it was not asthma.

Later, I visited one of my relatives who was being trained in herbal medicines. We had just arrived that morning in their home and as we sat down for breakfast, I started coughing. He told me he had the correct medicine for my cough.

Immediately after breakfast, he took out a bottle of a dark greenish powder, took one spoonful mixed with honey and then asked me take it. He told me to take it three times a day for three days. By the time we left the next evening, I had taken it for two days and I began to feel better. Actually, I had to take to take it for about a week and the cough vanished and I had no indication of asthma at all.

He called this ‘five medicines,’ the literal translation of the Tamil name ‘anjumarunthu.’ They are dried ginger, black pepper, long pepper or tippili, akkara, and chitharathai all locally available herbal medical substances. He gave me the proportions to be used for preparing them and I always had them locally prepared and in my fridge.

Research on immunity boosting foods

Having said that there are not enough studies to either prove or disprove the effectiveness of these substances in boosting the immunity levels, I would like to take it to the next level. This is an excellent area for research by some of the younger professionals. If teams consisting of pharmacologists, virologists, physicians of different specialties and some from Siddha or Ayurvedha come together and carry out research on the immunity boosting potential of these foods, it would be a great contribution to the future of medicine.

 Just to take the first step, I have listed some of the indicators that could be measured to test the effectiveness of these foods. Probably the two that stand out are levels of infection-fighting proteins (immunoglobulin) in the blood and measure the levels of blood cells and immune system cells. May be other indicators could be added by experts in this area as they start working together.

I am a firm believer in herbal medicines and practice them regularly. In our home we take moringa juice once or twice each week. I frequently consume one fresh tender betel leaf from a plant that grows in our home garden. I take a herbal candy for my cough. I wish someone would come forward and carry out the research that is needed and prove one way or the other the effectiveness of these herbal medicines in increasing the immunity for treating or controlling the commonly prevalent diseases as well as COVID-19.

The links to the eBook COVID-19 are in the following links given below.

Global https://www.amazon.com/dp/B08FRSNS73

Indian https://www.amazon.in/dp/B08FRSNS73    

Rajaratnam Abel

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Free COVID-19 e book on September 11

It is my pleasure to share with you my eBook COVID-19 once again for a free download on the 11th of September 20202.

I am thankful to the many who downloaded it last time when it was released in August.

I would like to see as many as possible benefit from this book especially during this time of the pandemic.

With no drug and vaccine available, the responsibility for protecting ourselves rests on each one of us.

The links to the eBook are in the following links given below.

Global https://www.amazon.com/dp/B08FRSNS73

Indian https://www.amazon.in/dp/B08FRSNS73    

Please share freely with your friends and relatives and anyone else who might benefit.

Rajaratnam Abel

Sharing from COVID-19 e-book

I was happy to see a number downloading the free ebook on COVID-19. I had stated it is my intention to share this with as many as possible.

While the free e-book will be available from time to time, I want to share some of the chapters from the book so that even those who do not download the book, may find this useful.

In this post I want to share about the pathophysiology of the disease. From the time the book was written new information could have emerged which readers can share as feedback.

The Pathophysiology

In this chapter, I would like to describe in a simple manner the pathological changes that are produced inside the lungs once the virus gets inside a human and multiplies. Very little was known from the initial autopsies conducted in China. Later pathologists in Italy carried out a larger number of autopsies and newer knowledge became available. Over time even newer knowledge is likely to occur. I am sharing what is currently known.

When an infected person expels virus-laden aerosol droplets and someone else inhales the SARS-CoV-2, it enters the nose and throat especially the epithelial lining of the nose. The cells there are rich in a cell-surface receptor called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). These help in producing angiotensin which normally helps regulate blood pressure.

When the virus encounters an epithelial cell in the nose, the spike proteins on its surface stick to the ACE2 receptors of the host epithelial cells, which allows the virus to gain access and replicate. These virus act in a highly selective manner, and that it is dependent on certain specific human cells in order to spread and replicate,”

Once inside, the virus hijacks the cell’s machinery, and starts making numerous copies of itself and also starts invading new cells. As the virus multiplies, an infected person may shed copious amounts of it, especially during the first week or so. Symptoms may be absent at this point or the patient may develop a fever, dry cough, sore throat, loss of smell and taste, or head and body aches. The natural immunity of the individual in most individuals would overcome the virus and the individual may pass off as an asymptomatic or subclinical individual. This is the mildest and may be considered as the initial or phase 1 of this disease.

If the immune system doesn’t beat back SARS-CoV-2 during this initial phase, the virus then marches down the trachea and bronchi. This is considered the second phase or the second window of opportunity to ‘kill’ the virus. The mechanism is similar to that in the nose with the virus sticking the ACE2 receptor cells. The symptoms of cough and fever may be more than in the first phase. Many individuals with COVID-19 without any risk factors would be able to come out safely even in phase two with the help of natural immunity.

If it passes beyond this level to attack the lungs, it can then turn deadly. The thinner, distant branches of the lung’s respiratory tree end in tiny air sacs called alveoli, each lined by a single layer of cells that are also rich in ACE2 receptors. In between this layer of cells are tiny capillaries, which are tiny blood vessels. Carbon dioxide in the blood is exchanged for the oxygen in the alveoli. The oxygen is then carried to the rest of the body.

But as the immune system wars with the invader, the battle itself disrupts this healthy oxygen transfer. Front-line white blood cells of the immune system, release inflammatory protein molecules called chemokines or cytokines, which in turn summon more immune cells that target and kill both the virus, which is the normal function. and also, virus-infected cells (abnormal function in COVID-19).

At this stage, the patient begins to find it difficult to breathe. With supportive measures by providing oxygen supply through masks, many who reach this phase three, are able to overcome the disease and get well. Right from the time a patient is admitted, the lung function of oxygenation is measured by special tests. Oxygen saturation is measured by pulse oximeter with a sensor attached to a finger. Normal pulse oximeter readings usually range from 95 to 100 per cent. Values under 90 per cent are considered low. Additionally, the oxygen concentration is measured from arterial blood. Normal arterial oxygen concentration is approximately 75 to 100 millimetres of mercury (mm Hg). Values under 60 mm Hg usually indicate the need for supplemental oxygen.

For some unknown reason, the normal cytokine reaction gets into overdrive or hyper-reactive, resulting in what is called a cytokine storm. During a cytokine storm, the cells of the immune system attack and kill the virus as well as the normal alveolar cells of the lung. This leads to an accumulation of fluid and dead cells in the air sacs of the alveoli in place of air. This makes the patient struggling to breathe.

Some COVID-19 patients recover, sometimes with no more support than oxygen breathed in through nasal prongs or masks initially and then under pressure. But others deteriorate, often quite suddenly, developing a condition called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Oxygen levels in their blood plummet and they struggle even harder to breathe. The patient has now reached what I would call the critical phase four.

By the time a patient reaches a stage of breathing difficulty, you can understand the changes that have taken place inside that person’s lungs. The patient is now put on a ventilator. There is very little functioning lung at the alveolar level. Even the oxygen pumped in by the ventilator is not adequately transferred at the alveolar level, because of the damage done by the cytokine storm. Oxygen does not reach in adequate concentration to different organs, resulting in failure of multiple organs, starting with the kidneys, the heart, brain, liver etc. resulting in death.

Italian pathologists who carried out a large number of autopsies of patients who died of COVID-19 observed that the cytokine storm created endothelial vascular thrombosis. The lung is the most affected because it is the most inflamed, but there is also a heart attack, stroke and many other thromboembolic diseases. Taking a viewpoint different from the earlier diagnosis, they conclude that it is not pneumonia but pulmonary thrombosis, that results from the cytokine storm. It was a major diagnostic error. This finding has an echo in the treatment which we shall soon see.

Another study in the US found that inflammation and systemic changes, due to the infection, are influencing how platelets function, leading them to aggregate faster, which could explain why the is increased numbers of blood clots in COVID-19 patients. It was discovered that the virus causes genetic changes in the platelets that also alter their interaction with the immune system and maybe the reason COVID-19 patients often suffer from severe lung damage.

Another, related change at this stage needs to be highlighted. Earlier, mention was made of ACE2 cells. These viruses, destroy these cells which help in producing angiotensin, a substance used for regulating blood pressure. With decreased angiotensin, blood pressure starts going upwards, which has to be managed along with oxygen for difficult breathing.

We have talked about breathing difficulty in COVID-19 individuals caused by four changes in the lungs. 1. This is caused by the swelling of the respiratory tract, which narrows the lumen of the wind pipe. 2. The infection fills the empty air sacs with fluid, preventing exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. 3. Thrombosis of the capillaries of the alveoli result in oxygen being not taken to different parts of the body. 4. Scarring of lung tissue takes place, which results in poor functioning of the lungs. All these result in difficulty in breathing.

As I mentioned all along, our knowledge around this disease is continuously changing. It cannot be said that we have reached an endpoint in our knowledge of this disease. However, this limited description of the pathology may help you understand what the research world is trying out with medicines that could at least restrict deaths first and then have medicines that could kill or control the viruses itself. If you have a relative who is admitted for care for COVID-19, you can understand what is happening to them when they indicate the various parameters of oxygen and blood pressure.  

I will make the book available for free download again next week. Once I confirm the dates I’ll let you know. In the meantime here’s the link to the book.

Global https://www.amazon.com/dp/B08FRSNS73

Indian https://www.amazon.in/dp/B08FRSNS73     

Links to COVID-19 eBook

Thanks to those who responded in a variety of ways to the eBook COVID-19. So far I had not provided the links to the book. In this post I am providing them.

There is a global link to be paid in US dollars or other currencies given below.

https://www.amazon.com/dp/B08FRSNS73/ref=rdr_kindle_ext_tmb

The second is a link for purchase in India and to be paid in Indian Rupees given below.

https://www.amazon.in/s?k=covid-19+rajaratnam+abel&i=digital-text&ref=nb_sb_noss

These links would make it convenient to those who want to buy or share this information.

The feedback that I am getting from those who have read this eBook is that it is comprehensive, and would help a vast audience who are are starved for facts on this disease.

So share freely to those who might benefit from this book as well ordering a personal copy for those who really want to know more about this disease.

Rajaratnam Abel

COVID-19 Free ebook available

By God’s grace, I was able to release my latest ebook on Amazon last night.

There are two steps you need to complete before downloading the free ebook

You need to create an Amazon account. It just involves providing your email id or mobile number and password.

You need to then download a free kindle reader from Goggle play store

Then click on the link below

Should you have any problems please let me know on abel_rajaratnam@hotmail.com

Rajaratnam Abel

How COVID-19 spreads in public places

Almost 100 people in Ohio were infected with coronavirus after man ...

Just a look at that diagram of how COVID-19 spreads and I don’t have to write one word.

Meeting places primarily air-conditioned ones are a prime places where COVID -19 spreads very fast to large numbers.

When countries and government advice people not to gather in large numbers, this picture explains the reason behind such orders.

It is safer to obey such orders than trying to fight for rights or privileges.

Every large gathering even outside has the risk of widely spreading this disease.

A young man took every precaution for a number of months. One day he went to buy a second pair of spects which he did not need and was in an optician’s air-conditioned office for about 15 minutes where there were a few others waiting as well.

Within a few days he was down with COVID-19.

He says, don’t even give the least chance to the virus. It will attack.

The wife of a leading doctor in Chennai did not leave her house for 4 months. Her only risk factor was that her car driver bought her provisions.

She got the disease and died a few days later.

The driver was tested and he was positive but asymptomatic.

Let’s keep safe. We do not know who will be the next victim.

In my last blog, I indicated that my e-book COVID-19 is ready for pre-order.

I am thankful to God and the couple who have started the ball rolling by ordering the first two.

The final editing and formatting processes have been completed and the e-book should be available in Amazon in a few days’ time.

Take care. Stay safe.

Rajaratnam Abel

COVID-19 is available for pre-order

This book is now slated to be available on August 25, 2020. The final processes of editing and formatting will be completed by them.

It is now available for pre order.

The purpose of publishing this book is to share simple knowledge on COVID-19 that would be understood by the ordinary lay public.

Therefore I would like to see this widely disseminated. As soon as it is formally released, then I would make it available for free download from Amazon.com.

So, I do not expect friendS and relatives who are in my contact list who receive these messages to pre order.

They would definitely get the information for the free download.

Please feel free to share With others who might benefit from this.

It is available For Pre-order in Amazon.com as COVID-19, Rajaratnam Abel.

Thanks.

Rajaratnam Abel

COVID-19 My newest e book


I thank God for giving me the opportunity to presnt my next book. It has taken me much longer than I imagined and planned.

This delay in finalising this book has also meant that, the blogs I used to write were also delayed much longer than I had anticipated.

Once the book is released, you can expect the blogging to restart sharing valuable experiences and lessons learnt.

This e-book has been written primarily for non-medical personnel. This includes the general lay public as well as development staff of NGOs and other organisations involved in educating the community.

Some medical personnel might also benefit from some of the information contained in this e-book.

While it is planned to be made available online through Amazon.com, I would explore every possible avenue of making this available at no cost. This is to help people prevent themselves from this deadly disease.

I will get back through this blog once the e-book is released.

Rajaratnam Abel

Countries with Different Economies and some Covid indicators

I came across this set of graphs of countries with different economies and covid indicators. I am thankful to Dr Sandhya Ahuja for presenting such valuable information graphically. I can imagine the amount of time it would have taken.

I thought some who are analytically minded would like to delve deeper into this set of graphs. Anyway, I have some questions below which might stimulate your thinking.

https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/?nsukey=DwA4%2FRBtAwsUGls3CE%2F6svxGi81XVxq35nyfIcFfiMxBucPQEpJhc0kDrCnKRWTL%2FU%2BK%2BE8IsjhM6C1ATMNwdPCny2JmeMR20RFbV%2BGrOEMitbh%2BwQEFnl%2Fxh%2FIKZ7ZJI%2B5TPLzgDvAxcEBxPFKyIZ6sFEWFjLFK2wqsiik4zm0jYD9cbLi91wlAB2Lrzmfe%2BvUTWSpTaL52Tt4BFT2bxg%3D%3D

  1. Why is India’s position so surprisingly different?

2. Do these indicators indicators something more serious?

3. Is India on the way to losing its game based on the actual situation in the ground?

Enjoy the graphs and would value your comments.

Rajaratnam Abel

Migrant Labour: Hidden Powerhouse of the Indian Economy

Over a month ago when Tamilnadu state and India as a nation announced lock down, there was a subtle difference. Tamilnadu gave 36 hours for the people to adapt to the new social norm. India gave 6 hours to its citizens to adjust to the change.

The implementation was needed, but not the suddenness and the surprise element. It was assumed that it was not adequately planned to meet the needs of its citizens. The plight of the migrant labour has clearly indicated the poor planning.

Probably no one realised the actual numbers and the depth of the involvement of the migrant labour in the Indian economy. All the gains of the initial efforts at controlling COVID-19 in India, could be lost for not making adequate plans for the migrant labour.

Tamilnadu, on its part took some initiative in taking care of the migrant labour in the state. But as the lock down extended, other interventions had to be made on their behalf.

Only when migrants started walking long distances to reach their original homes, did the authorities wake up to the reality of the problems of the migrant labour. The accidental deaths of a sizeable number during the journey increased additional concerns to the problems they faced.

A little effort at coordinating government initiatives Both central and state governments and the support of the corporates who had used them could have prevented this hardship.

I attempted to get some links oand pictures depicting some of the stark realities of their long walk home. These are to have a glimpse of the problems they faced.

https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/coronavirus-lockdown-desperate-to-go-home-migrants-swarm-ground-near-delhi-for-buses-2230816

https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/coronavirus-lockdown-migrant-who-wanted-to-see-dying-son-finally-reaches-home-in-bihar-2231010

@arvindcTOI

What made these migrants choose to walk long distances. With no jobs, no wages and no food, they felt they were left with no option but to take resins in getting back to their own villages. This was predicted about lock downs, when implemented without proper planning, anticipating the needs of various sections of the population. The migrant labour were not on the radar of the planners, while planning work from home and stopping all Form of labour.

This blog is not to highlight the failure of planning but for the need to plan for the future. Sooner or later, these migrants who walked or traveled on different forms of transport back home, these same migrants will have to be brought back for the resilience needed for the economy.

Systematic plans must be made for identifying strategies to bring back for the work the migrant workers have been carrying out For the development of the country and its economy.

May be this is the time to organise the migrant labour systems. The states and the centre should devise ways in which the various needs are met.

At present there are contractors who bring in these migrants. The problems faced by the migrants have not been adequately addressed.

Near my home, there is one Odisha Bhavan and another Assam Bhavan. These and similar set up by other states should take the initiative to provide support to migrant labour.

There are problems created by some of the migrant s and or their representatives, which end to be addressed as well.

The role and responsibilities of the corporate and private sector in employing migrant labour should also be clearly defined.

The plight faced by the migrant labour have been indelibly etched in the minds of the people. Fortunately, individuals and organisations with a service mind pitched in and helped the walking migrants as much as possible.

Some gave money and helped them. One traveler reported as he went in his car from the south to the north, that all along the route there were people who were providing food and water to these weary travellers. One set of individuals coordinated with the governments of the sending and receiving states to smoothen the travel process when train services were made available.

You can add your thoughts to these as the government comes to grips with the plight of the migrant labour in the country even as they realise the tremendous contributions to the economic development of the country.

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